Gypsy moth (Photo courtesy of 123RF free stock photos)
The Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protections’ (DATCP) most recent trapping season for gypsy moths (Lymantria dispar dispar) suggests that the invasive species’ population is continuing to decline in Wisconsin. In 2017, 108,808 moths were captured, followed by a little over 76,000 in 2018. For 2019, the numbers continued to drop to 52,396 captured moths.
Although not a form of population control, the traps are an effective means of measuring the insect’s population. The invasive moth species originates from Europe, and began spreading into North America after it was first introduced in 1869. Gypsy moth caterpillars feed on leaves from a variety of trees and shrubs, particularly oaks. With their ravenous appetite, the caterpillars can cause severe defoliation if left unchecked.
Upon entering the adult phase of their life cycle, the creatures single-mindedly seek mates. Male moths fly, while females do not, meaning that the DATCP population data is based entirely on the male segment of the species. After laying masses of eggs, the female moth dies. The eggs then lay in wait for the following spring when they hatch, feed, grow and turn into new moths before beginning the cycle again.
Trapping males also helps guide where to direct spraying programs to reduce the moths’ numbers the following year. In 2019, about 76,288 acres across 14 Wisconsin counties were successfully treated. Spray sites for next year, however, haven’t yet been determined.
Wisconsin’s cold winters have not been kind to the gypsy moth. According to a DATCP press release, this might be driving the invasive species’ continued decline — especially over the last couple of years, when snowfall has been less consistent. Gypsy moths use snow as insulation when they hunker down for the winter. The protection also helps secure and hide their egg masses.
DATCP encourages Wisconsin residents to help push the invasive insect out wherever possible. Removing egg clusters is a crucial thing ordinary citizens can do, without the need for sprays. The clusters can be found on trees, vehicles, fences, playground equipment, buildings or any such outdoor items. The bulb-shaped egg masses are a bit bigger than a quarter, flat with a velvety texture and can hold anywhere from 500 to 1,000 eggs.
“For the second straight year, there were several days of severe winter temperatures cold enough to kill gypsy moth eggs throughout Wisconsin,” said Michael Falk, trapping coordinator for the program. “These cold temperatures, in combination with our treatments, have helped decrease gypsy moth catches by about one-third since 2018, and one-half since 2017. However, moth populations can rebound quickly given the right environmental conditions.”
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